Knowledge Base

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Knowledge Base

Standard Shapes & Dimensions
Arch Bricks End Arch Side Arch
Standard Key Side Feather
Arch Side Skew End Feather
Split End Skew Wedge

A B C D   A B C D
9" x 4½" x 3" 2¾"   230 x 115 x 75mm 70mm
9" x 4½" x 3" 2½"   230 x 115 x 75mm 65mm
9" x 4½" x 3" 2½"   230 x 115 x 75mm 50mm
9" x 4½" x 3" 2"   230 x 115 x 75mm 55mm
9" x 4½" x 3" 1¾"   230 x 115 x 75mm 45mm
9" x 4½" x 3" 1¼"   230 x 115 x 75mm 40mm
9" x 4½" x 3" 1¼"   230 x 115 x 75mm 30mm
9" x 4½" x 3" 1   230 x 115 x 75mm 25mm
9" x 4½" x 3" ¼"   230 x 115 x 75mm 6mm


Number of Bricks Required per Sq.Ft. of Wall
a cubic meter of brickwork requires 513 nos  230 x 115 x 75 mm Straights
a cubic foot of brickwork requires   14.2 nos 9" x 4.5" x 3" Straights
the volume of 1000 nos. standard closely stacked is approximately 1.95 cu.mt. 230 x 115 x 75 mm Straights
the volume of 1000 nos. standard closely stacked 71 cu.ft. 9" x 4.5" x 3" Straights


Some Useful Formulas
Rectangle Acute-Angle Triangle Regular Polygon
Circle Sectore Of Circle Parallelogram
Obtuse-Angled Triangle Trapezium Annular Ring

Furnace Temperature
Kind Of Furnace Degrees C Degrees F
Boilers 1000 to 1600 1800 to 2900
By-Product Coke Ovens 1000 to 1500 1830 to 2730
Cement Kilns, hot Zone 1300 to 1600 2400 to 2900
Copper Converters 1200 to 1300 2200 to 2400
Copper Refining Furnaces 1250 to 1550 2300 to 2800
Copper Reverberatories 1300 to 1570 2400 to 2850
Gas Producer 1260 to 1370 2300 to 2500
Glass Annealing Furnaces 0430 to 0450 0800 to 1000
Glass Tanks, bottle 1370 to 1600 2500 to 2900
Glass Tanks, plate 1370 to 1650 2500 to 3000
Iron and Steel Furnaces .... ....
Annealing Oven 0760 to 0980 1400 to 1800
Blast Furnace, tapping 1370 to 1540 2500 to 2800
Bessemer Converter 1540 to 1650 2800 to 3000
Electric Furnaces 1450 to 1700 2650 to 3100
Heating Furnaces 0980 to 1310 1800 to 2400
Malleable Furnaces 1300 to 1650 2400 to 3000
Open Hearths .... ....
Melting Chamber 0650 to 1680 1200 to 3050
Checkers 0200 to 1430 0400 to 2600
Soaking Pits 1150 to 1370 2100 to 2500


Color Scale for Temperature
Lowest visible red 475 885
Lowest visible red to dark red 475 to 650 885 to 1200
Dark red to cherry red 650 to 750 1200 to 1380
Cherry red to bright cherry red 750 to 815 1380 to 1500
Bright cherry red to Orange 815 to 900 1500 to 1650
Orange to yellow 900 to 1090 1650 to 2000
Yellow to light yellow 1090 to 1315 2000 to 2400
Light yellow to white 1315 to 1540 2400 to 2800
White to Dazzling white 1540 to Over 2800 to Over

Definition : Pyrometric Cone Equivalent (P.C.E.) - In the case of refractories, the number of that standard cone whose tip would touch the supporting plaque simultaneously with a cone of the material being investigated when tested in accordance with the Standard Method of test for P.C.E. of Fireclay Bricks IS: 1528 Part-I 1980 of the Indian Standard Institute.
Note: The terms fusion point, Softening point, deformation point and melting point have heretofore been lossely used for pyrometric cone equivalent.

Temperature Endpoints of Pyrometric Cones
Large Cones P.C.E Cones
Orton Cone "C "F Orton Cone "C "F
022 585 1085 11 1294 2361
021 602 1116 12 1306 2383
020 625 1157 13 1349 2460
019 668 1234 14 1398 2548
018 696 1285 15 1430 2606
017 727 1341 16 1491 2716
016 767 1407 17 1512 2754
015 790 1454 18 1522 2772
014 834 1533 19 1541 2806
013 869 1596 20 1564 2847
012 866 1591 23 1605 2921
011 886 1627 26 1621 2950
010 887 1629 27 1640 2984
09 915 1679 29 1659 3018
08 945 1733 31 1683 3061
07 973 1783 31 1699 3090
06
05
04
03
991
1031
1050
1086
1816
1888
1922
1987
32
32
33
34
1717
1724
1743
1763
3123
3135
3169
3205
02
01
1
2
1101
1117
1136
1142
2014
2043
2077
2088
35
36
37
38
1785
1804
1820
1820
3245
3279
3308
3362
3
4
5
6
1152
1168
1177
1201
2106
2134
2151
2194
39
40
41
42
1865
1885
1970
2015
3389
3425
3525
3659
7
8
9
10
1215
1236
1260
1285
2219
2257
2300
2345
..... ..... .....

*Note: Pyrometric cones do not give an accurate measurement of temperature. Where it is desired to interpret P.C.E. values approximately in terms of temperature, The table above may be used. This table had been approved by the A.S.M.T. based on the work of Fairchild and peters, J. Amer. Cer. Soc. 9, 701-43, 1926. Revision in the A.S.M.T. cones 12 to 37 inclusive were adopted in June, 1955, A.S.M.T. Standards 1955, 711.715 Heating rate: Cones 022 to 37 inclusive, 150ºCent. Per hour (270ºF per hour); Cones 38, 100º Cent. Per hour (180ºF per hours). The temperatures do not apply to the slower of heating common in the commercial firing and to use of refractory materials. This chart as been adopted by bureau of Indian Standards.

Cooperative Chart showing Cones Nos. and Temperature for segar & Orton Cones
Cone No. Segar(º) Orton (º) Cone No. (º) Segar (º) Orton (º)
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
23
26
27
27½
28
29
30
1395
1410
1440
1470
1500
1520
1540
1560
-
1580
1600
1620
1640
1660
1680
1349
1398
1430
1491
1512
1522
1541
1564
1605
1621
1640
-
1646
1659
1665
31
31º½
32
32½
33
33½
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
1700
-
1710
1720
1730
1740
1760
1780
1800
1830
1860
1880
1900
1940
1980
1683
1699
1717
1724
1743
-
1763
1785
1804
1820
1835
1865
1885
1970
2015
Conversion Table Cold Crushing Strength
Kg/cm2
KB/IN2
Kg/cm2
KB/IN2
100
1,422
-
-
200
2,844
600
8,532
300
4,266
700
9,954
400
5,688
800
11,376
500
7,110
900
12,798
Calorie
1,000 K.Cal
1,000 BTU
1,500
5,952
1,000
3,968
Thermal Conductivity
K. Cal /m/hr/ºC
B.T.U./in/hr./ºF
-
4,032
0.5
8,064
1
24,194
3
-
Density
g/cm3
ib/ft3
ib/in3
g/cm3
ib/ft3
ib/in3
1.9
119
0.06865
-
-
-
2.1
131
0.07587
2.9
181
0.10478
2.5
144
0.0831
3.1
194
0.11200
2.5
156
0.09033
3.3
206
0.11923
2.7
169
0.09755
3.5
219
0.12646

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